India's population as on 1 March 2011 stood at 1,210,193,422 (623.7 million males and 586.4 million females) in compared to a total of 1, 028, 737, 436 in the year 2001. In absolute term, the population of India has increased by more than 181 million during the decade 2001-2011.

The percentage decadal growth of population during 2001-2011 has registered the sharpest decline since independence. It declined from 23.87 per cent for 1981-1991 to 21. 54 per cent for the period 1991-2001, a decrease of 2.33 per cent. For 2001-2011, decadal growth has become 17.64 per cent, a further decrease of 3.90 percentage point.

Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in the country with almost 200 million people. Sikkim is the least populous state with 6,07,688 people.