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The Union

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Executive

The Union executive consists of the President, the Vice-President, and the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as the head to aid and advise the President.

President
The President is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of elected members of both Houses of Parliament and Legislative Assemblies of the states in accordance with the system of proportional representation, by means of single transferable vote.


Vice-President
The Vice-President is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote.


Council of Ministers
There is a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister to aid and advise the President in exercise of his functions.


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Legislature

Legislature of the Union, which is called Parliament, consists of the President and two Houses, known as Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and House of the People (Lok Sabha). Each House has to meet within six months of its previous sitting. A joint sitting of two Houses can be held in certain cases.

Rajya Sabha
The Constitution provides that the Rajya Sabha shall consist of 250 members, of which 12 members shall be nominated by the President from amongst persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as literature, science, art and social service; and not more than 238 representatives of the States and of the Union Territories.


Lok Sabha
The Lok Sabha is composed of representatives of people chosen by direct election on the basis of adult suffrage.


Qualification of Membership of Parliament
In order to be chosen a member of Parliament, a person must be a citizen of India and not less than 30 years of age in the case of Rajya Sabha and not less than 25 years of age in the case of Lok Sabha.


Functions & Powers of Parliament
As in other parliamentary democracies, the Parliament in India has the cardinal functions of legislation, overseeing of administration, passing of the Budget, ventilation of public grievances and discussing various subjects like development plans, national policies and international relations.


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Parliamentary Committees

The functions of Parliament are not only varied in nature, but considerable in volume. The time at its disposal is limited. It cannot make very detailed scrutiny of all legislative and other matters that come up before it.

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Leaders of Opposition in Parliament

In keeping with their important role, the Leaders of Opposition in the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha are accorded statutory recognition.

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Government Business in Parliament

The Minister of Parliamentary Affairs is entrusted with the responsibility of coordinating, planning and arranging Government Business in both Houses of Parliament.

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Consultative Committees

The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs constitutes Consultative Committees of Members of both the Houses of Parliament, which are attached to various Ministries, and arranges meetings thereof.

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Nomination of Members of Parliament on Government Committees/Bodies

The Minister of Parliamentary Affairs nominates Members of Parliament on Committees, Councils, Boards and Commissions, etc., set-up by the Government of India in various Ministries.

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Youth Parliament Competition

In order to develop democratic ethos in the younger generation the Ministry conducts Youth Parliament Competition in various categories of schools and colleges/universities. The Youth Parliament Scheme was first introduced in the Schools in Delhi in 1966-67.

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Other Parliamentary Matters


All India Whips Conference
The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs, Government of India has been organising All India Whips Conference from time to time, with the purpose of establishing suitable links among the whips of various political parties at the Centre...


Matters Under Rule 377 and Special Mentions
The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs takes follow-up action on matters raised under Rule 377 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha and by way of Special Mentions in Rajya Sabha.


Implementation of Assurances
The Ministry culls out assurances, promises, undertakings, etc., given by Ministers in both the Houses of Parliament, from the daily proceedings and forwards them to the concerned Ministries/Departments for implementation...


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Administrative Set-up

The Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961 are made by the President of India under Article 77 of the Constitution for the allocation of business of the Government of India.

Cabinet Secretariet
The Cabinet Secretariat is under the direct charge of the Prime Minister. The administrative head of the Secretariat is the Cabinet Secretary who is also the ex-officio Chairman of the Civil Services Board.


National Authority, Chemical Weapons Convention
National Authority, Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) was set up by a resolution of Cabinet Secretariat dated 5 May 1997 to fulfil the obligations enunciated in the Chemical Weapons Convention initially signed by 130 countries in a conference which concluded on 14 January 1993 for the purpose prohibiting of the development, production, execution, transfer, use and stockpiling of all chemical weapons by Member-States is a non-discriminatory process.


Ministries/Departments of the Government
The Government consists of a number of Ministries/Departments, number and character varying from time to time on factors such as volume of work importance attached to certain items, changes of orientation, political expediency, etc.


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Public Services


All India Services
Prior to Independence, the Indian Civil Service (ICS) was the senior most amongst the Services of the Crown in India. Besides the ICS, there was also the Indian Police Service.


Central Secretariat Services
The Central Secretariat has three services, namely, (i) Central Secretariat Service (CSS), (ii) Central Secretariat Stenographers' Service (CSSS) and (iii) the Central Secretariat Clerical Service (CSCS).


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Official Language


Official Language - Constitutional/Statutory Provisions
Article 343(1) of the Constitution provides that Hindi in Devanagari script shall be the Official Language of the Union. Article 343(2) also provided for continuing the use of English in official work of the Union for a period of 15 years from the date of commencement of the Constitution.


Policy
In compliance with the Official Language Resolution, 1968, an Annual Programme is prepared by the Department of Official Language in which targets are set for the offices of the Central Government with regard to originating correspondence, telegrams, telex, etc., in Hindi.


Committees/Samities
A Committee of Parliament on Official Language was constituted in 1976 under section 4 of the Official Languages Act, 1963 to periodically review the progress in the use of Hindi as the Official Language of the Union and to submit a report to the President.


Award Schemes
The Indira Gandhi Rajbhasha Awards Scheme has been in operation since 1986-87. Shields are given every year to Ministries/Departments, Banks and Financial Institutions, Public Sector Undertakings and Town Official Language Implementation Committees for outstanding achievements in the implementation of the Official Language Policy of the Union.


Training
Under the Hindi Teaching Scheme, administered by the Department of Official Language, training in Hindi language is being imparted through 119 full-time and 49 part-time centres throughout the country.


Technical
In order to facilitate the use of Official Language with the help of Mechanical and Electronic equipment, especially computers, a Technical Cell was set up in the Department of Official Language in October 1983.


Publications
The Department of Official Language brings out 'Rajbhasha Bharati', a quarterly magazine, dedicated for encouraging writings in the field of Official Language, literature, technology, information technology, etc...


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Comptroller & Auditor General

Comptroller and Auditor-General is appointed by the President. Procedure and grounds for his removal from office are the same as for a Supreme Court Judge. He is not eligible for further office under the Union or a State Government after he ceases to hold his office.

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Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances

Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances is the nodal agency of the Government for Administrative Reforms as well as redressal of public grievances relating to the States in general and grievances pertaining to Central Government agencies in particular.

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Administrative Tribunals

The enactment of Administrative Tribunals Act in 1985 opened a new chapter in the sphere of administering justice to the aggrieved government servants. Administrative Tribunals Act owes its origin to Article 323-A of the Constitution which empowers Central Government to set-up by an Act of Parliament, Administrative Tribunals for adjudication of disputes and complaints with respect to recruitment and conditions of service of persons appointed to the public service and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union and the States.

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