|Area||44,212 sq. km|
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History and Geography
Haryana has a proud history going back to the Vedic Age. The State was the home of the legendary Bharata dynasty, which has given the name Bharat to India. Haryana finds mention in the great epic of Mahabharata. Kurukshetra, the place of the epic battle between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, is situated in Haryana. The State continued to play a leading part in the history of India till the advent of the Muslims and the rise of Delhi as the imperial capital of India. Thereafter, Haryana functioned as an adjunct to Delhi and practically remained anonymous till the First War of India's Independence in 1857. When the rebellion was crushed and the British administration was re-established, the Nawabs of Jhajjar and Bahadurgarh, Raja of Ballabgarh and Rao Tula Ram of Rewari of the Haryana region were deprived of their territories. Their territories were either merged with the British territories or handed over to the rulers of Patiala, Nabha and Jind. Haryana thus became a part of the Punjab province. With the reorganisation of Punjab on 1 November 1966, Haryana was made into a full-fledged State.
The State is bound by Uttar Pradesh in the east, Punjab in the west, Himachal Pradesh in the north and Rajasthan in the south. The National Capital Territory of Delhi juts into Haryana.
Agriculture is the mainstay of more than 65 per cent population in Haryana with the second largest contribution to the food bowl of the country. Under the diversification of crops, more and more area is being brought under cash crops like sugarcane, cotton and oilseeds, vegetable and fruits. Sustainable agriculture is being promoted through the propagation of resource conserving technologies and organic farming. Dhaincha and Moong have also been encouraged to maintain soil fertility.
Haryana is shaping into a modern Takshila. Making elementary education available at reachable distance to all children, and opening/bringing a large number of institutes of higher learning, offering global standard education. According to 2001 census, the literacy rate in Haryana is 67.91 per cent against the all India literacy rate of 65.38 per cent. Haryana's female literacy rate is 55.73 per cent and male literacy rate is 78.49 per cent.
The healthcare has been mad both affordable and reachable by setting up a state-wide network of district and sub-divisional hospitals. These are being beefed up with staff and equipment and deficiencies in referral services are being removed. The state-wide network of health centres includes 52 hospitals, 94 community health centres, 441 primary health centres, 2,465 sub-centres, 15 district TB Centres, 639 Ayurvedic, Homeopathy and Unani Centres, 16 urban health posts, the Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research at Rohtak, and Medical Colleges at Agroha (Hisar) and Mullana (Ambala). Besides, as many as 516 Delivery Huts have been set up to provide delivery services in clean and hygiene environment. Major infrastructural improvements are being made to upgrade the existing health institutions to the Indian Public Health standards.
Releasing the importance of Information Technology in the globalized world, the State Government has formulated an IT Policy which provides several incentives for setting up Technology Parks, Cyber Cities, IT corridors and ITES industry in the State. Haryana has emerged as a preferred investment destination for IT industry as well. Out of the total 46 SEZs are formally approved for the state, 35 are in the IT sector. Of these, three IT SEZs are in an advanced stage of completion. In addition, the state has okayed 33 professionals for setting up IT/Cyber Parks. The software exports from Haryana now aggregated Rs.21,000 crore.
The investment and industry-friendly policies pursued by the state government have made Haryana the cynosure of all investing eyes, and put the state on threshold of industrial revolution. Small wonder then, that there are more than 1,354 large and medium and 80,000 small-scale units dotting the industrial landscape in the state. Haryana today is the largest producer of passenger cars, tractors, motorcycles, bicycles, refrigerators, scientific instrument, etc. Besides, it is the largest exporter of basmati rice. Panipat handlooms and carpets are known all over world besides its lip-ticking Panchranga Achaar.
The 1,429-strong network of canals constitutes the bedrock of the irrigation system in Haryana with 6.83 lakh tubewells and pumpsets playing no mean role. 1,92,980 hectare of land is under agriculture in the state. Starting with 20,000 tubewells in 1966, the state had 4.91 lakh tubewells in March, 2010. The major irrigation projects in the state are western Yamuna Canal System, Bhakra Canal System and Gurgaon Canal System. Giving practical shape to the lift irrigation system for the first time in India, Haryana has raised water from lower levels to higher and drier slopes through JLN canal project. Haryana is a beneficiary of the multi-purpose project in Sutlej and Beas sharing benefits with Punjab and Rajasthan.
The first state in the country to have achieved hundred per cent rural electrification way back in 1970, Haryana is well on way to becoming power surplus from a power deficit state. The total installed generation capacity available with Haryana is 5801.82 MW. Out of this, the Haryana Power Generation Corporation Limited has an installed generation capacity of 3230.5 MW, comprising 1367.8-MW Panipat Thermal Power Station, Panipat; 1200-MW Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power Project, Hisar, 600 MW Deen Bandhu Chhotu Ram Thermal Power Project, Hisar; and 62.7-MW WYC Hydro Electric Station, Yamuna Nagar. The balance comes from Haryana's share in the central sector generating stations and from long-term power contracts.
Road and rail transport are the main carriers of passengers traffic in Haryana with aviation too playing a small role. Haryana is one state where all villages are linked with metalled roads. The length of the roads in the state is more than 35,303 km. Haryana Roadways number of buses is 3246.
Then, railways play an important role in carrying both inter-state and intra-state passengers. Kalka, Ambala, Kurushetra, Panipat, Rohtak, Jind, Hisar and Jakhal are important railway stations. There is railway workshop at Jagadhari. Aviation too plays its role. There are civil aerodromes at Pinjore, Karnal, Hisar, Bhiwani and Narnaul.
A pioneer in highway tourism, Haryana has set up a vast network of 43 tourist complexes all over the state. Having 846-roomed accommodation in the various outfits, Haryana Tourism attracts 63 lakh tourists every year. The State Government has adopted a multi-pronged strategy to promote tourism. Tourist complexes have been set at strategic points along the highways passing through the state and tourist complexes have been developed around Delhi with the intent of promoting leisure tourism and conference tourism.
Besides, tourist facilities have been set up at the district headquarters, and in important towns, to cater to the needs of tourists and local people. Some of the important tourist complexes are: Surajkund and Damdama in Gurgaon and fascinating pocket of pines at Morni Hills are other attractions of tourist interest. The other important resorts are Ethnic India Rai, Blue Jay (Samalkha), Skylark (Panipat), Karna Lake and Oasis (Uchana), Parakeet (Pipli), Kingfisher (Ambala), Magpie (Faridabad), Dabchick (Hodal), Shama (Gurgaon), Jungle Babbler (Dharuhera), Gauriyya (Bahadurgarh). Myna (Rohtak), Blue Bird (Hisar), Red Bishop (Panchkula) and Pinjore Gardens, (Pinjore).
The famous Surajkund Crafts Mela is held every year in the month of February to promote the art and culture. Similarly, the Pinjore Heritage Festival is celebrated every year to promote the ancient heritage of Pinjore.
* As per 2011 Census (Provisional Data)
Source: India Book 2012 - A Reference Annual