|Area||79,714 sq. km|
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History and Geography
Jharkhand which came into being on 15 November 2000 as the 28th State of the Union is the homeland of the tribals who had dreamed of a separate state for a long time. According to legend, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Odisha had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century. It largely comprises forest tracks of Chhotanagpur plateau and Santhal Pargana and has distinct cultural traditions. In post-independence era, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha started a regular agitation which impelled the government to establish the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council in 1995 and finally a full-fledged State.
Jharkhand is bound by West Bengal in the east, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh in the west, Bihar in the north and Odisha in the south.
The State has an area of 79,714 sq km of which 18,423 sq km is forest land. Agriculture and allied activities are the major source of Jharkhand's economy. The total cultivable land is only 38 lakh hectares.
Irrigation and Power
Damodar, Maurakshi, Barakar, North Koyel, South Koyel, Sankh, Subarnarekha, Kharkai, and Ajay are major water resources in the State. The net sown area is 1.8 million hectares of which 8 per cent is irrigated.
The installed capacity of power in Jharkhand is 2,590 MW. This includes 420 MW (Tenughat Thermal Power Station), 840 MW (Patratu Thermal Power Station), 130 MW (Sikkidiri Hydel Project) and 1,200 MW (Damodar Valley Corporation Thermal/Hydel Project). The prospect of capacity addition in both the thermal and hydel sectors of various power stations is 4,736 MW. This includes 686 MW hydel generation.
Industry and Minerals
Some of Jharkhand's major industries are: Bokaro Steel Plant in the public sector, Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) in Jamshedpur in the private sector. Other important industries are Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO), Timken India Limited (Jamshedpur), Bharat Coking Limited (Dhanbad), Khilari Cement Factory (Palamu), Indian Aluminum (Muri). ACC cement (Chaibsa), Central Coalfields Limited (Ranchi), Usha Martin, Usha Beltron, Uranium Corporation (I) Limited (Jadugora), Hindustan Copper Limited (Mussabani), Tin Plate Company of India Limited (Jamshedpur), Indian Explosive Limited (Gomia), and Hindalco Bauxite (Lohardaga), etc.
The State is rich in mineral resources. The important available minerals are coal, iron ore, lime stone, copper ore, bauxite, pyrite, china clay, kyanite, fine clay, dolomite, graphite, bentonite, soap stone, quartz sand and silica sand. The nascent State of Jharkhand has the enormous potential for exploitation of coal, mica and other minerals particularly in Singhbhum, Bokaro, Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Koderma and Dhanbad.
Roads: The total length of roads in the State is 4,311 km. This includes 1,500 km national highways and 2,711 km state highways.
Railways: The State has a well-developed railway system. Ranchi, Bokaro, Dhanbad, Jamshedpur are some of the major railway stations.
Aviation: Ranchi is connected with Delhi, Patna and Mumbai. Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Giridih, Deoghar, Hazaribagh, Daltonganj and Noamundi have air strips.
There are many scenic attractions in the State, namely, Ichagarh Bird Sanctuary, Udhava Bird Sanctuary-Sahibganj (Pathara Lake), Chachro Crocodile Breeding Centre-Koderma (Tilaya Dam), Chandrapura Bird Sanctuary, Jawaharlal Nehru Zoological Garden (Bokaro), Tenughat Bird Sanctuary, Dalma Wild Life Sanctuary (Jamshedpur), Tata Steel Zoological Park (Jamshedpur), Palkote Wild Life Sanctuary (Gumla), Bhagwan Birsa Zoological Gardens (Ranchi), Birsa Deer Sanctuary (Kalmati Ranchi), Betla National Park (Palamau), Ranchi Aquarium (Ranchi) and Hazaribagh National Park, Tatoloi hot water stream (Dumka) and Saranda Forest.
Apart from the above, Jharkhand has some famous temples like, Jharkhand Dham, Lagnta Baba Temple/Majar, Bindhvashini Temple, Masanjore Dam, etc.
* As per 2011 Census (Provisional Data)
Source: India Book 2012 - A Reference Annual